Depressive Disorders 2

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Overview – Depressive Disorders, Part 2  

In Depressive Disorders Part 1, it was pointed out that according to the World Health Organization, mood disorders involving depression are now the leading cause of disability and poor health worldwide, affecting more than 300 million people on Planet Earth, which nearly equals the population of the continental United States. In addition, nearly half of those diagnosed with depression are also diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders impact all genders, races, ages, economic groups, and backgrounds and are a leading trigger for divorces. More females are diagnosed with depressive disorders than are males. This may represent real data, or it may occur because females are more likely to seek medical attention, while fewer males tend to seek help for depressive disorders—thinking it shameful or unmasculine. Even when they do seek help, the symptoms males exhibit may be misdiagnosed because male-female symptoms of depression differ. Estimates are that it takes 10 years and 3 different health professionals to properly diagnose major depressive disorder in males.

Anhedonia, an inability to experience pleasure in activities a person normally enjoys, may lead to the perception that life is not worth living, including a sense of helplessness and hopelessness. There is some speculation that sleep deprivation may be a contributor to anhedonia. A study published in npj Digital Medicine pointed out that in addition to getting sufficient sleep for the brain and having regular bedtime and wake-up times is also important. Irregular sleep schedules can disrupt circadian rhythms and may cause or exacerbate existing mental health problems. 

Depressive Disorders, Part 2, presents information on four different types of Anxiety, one type each day for four days.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) described as a depressive disorder that is a severe form of Premenstrual Syndrome or PMS. It is characterized by  a cyclical, hormone-based change in mood with symptoms arising during the week or two prior to the onset of menstruation and generally subsiding within a few days after the start of menstruation. Symptoms can worsen over time and/ or around reproductive events such as pregnancy, birth, miscarriage, and perimenopause. These women are at increased risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. A study of premenopausal Asian, Latina, and Black women reported an association between perceived discrimination and premenstrual symptoms. These findings suggest that the prevalence of symptoms may be lessened by reducing discrimination in women’s lives.

Substance-Induced Depressive Disorder

Substance-Induced Depressive Disorder involves the effects of medication or drug use and withdrawal from a substance. It is characterized by a prominent and persistent disturbance in mood involving clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. A depressed mood that only occurs within the context of withdrawal or use of a substance is considered a substance-induced depressive disorder. There is evidence that the substance or medication can produce the symptoms that developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal or after exposure to a medication. 

Substance abuse is common among individuals who are dealing with depressive disorders. A coexisting substance abuse disorder and a depressive disorder is referred to as a dual diagnosis. 

Depressive Disorder Due to Medical Condition

Depressive Disorder Due to Medical Condition is characterized by a prominent and persistent depression, which cannot be better explained by another mental disorder. There is evidence that the alteration in mood is due to a direct pathophysiological consequence of another medical condition and that it causes clinically significant impairment in functioning. In addition to the psychological symptoms, many factors need to be considered in making a proper diagnosis, including medical and psychological testing considerations. 

Daily living activities that can become increasing difficult for those with a medical condition, activities that ordinarily are view as rather simply situation. These include just getting up and getting dressed in the morning, frequent medical appointments, getting meals, and trying to keep straight the medications that may need to be taken several times a day. 

Unspecified Depressive Disorder

Unspecified Depressive Disorder may be described as involving symptoms characteristic of a depressive disorder that cause significant distress or impairment in functioning. The symptoms and characteristics, however, do not meet the typical full criteria of a Depressive Disorder. This category includes “any depressive disorder that does not meet the criteria for a specific disorder.”

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